Tugas Kuliah

SOFTSKILL

( taken from MAKET LEADER)

UNIT 1

BRANDS

A. List some of your favourite brands. Then answer these questions.

1. Are they International or national brands? They are international and national brands.

2. What image and qualities does each one have? Use the following words and phrases to help you.

3. Why do people buy brands? People buy brands because its quality for each brand.

4. Why do you think some people dislikes brands? Because it’s so expensive for some people.

5. How loyal are you to the brands you have chosen? I will loyal if product of the brands is well-made and have top range

For example, when you buy jean, do you always buy Levi’s

B. A recent survey named the brands below as the world’s top ten. Which do you think is number one? Rank the others in order.


Answer :

1. Coca – cola

2. IBM

3. Microsoft

4. GE

5. Nokia

6. McDonald

7. Disney

8. Intel

9. Mercedez Benz

10. Marlboro

=========Data tersebut saya dapatkan dari situs Rank of Global Brands=======

Vocabulary

Brand Management

A. Match these word partnerships to their meanings.


B. Complete these sentences with word partnerships from exercise A

BRAND

1. the creation of Virgin Cola, Virgin Air, Virgin Rail and Virgin bride is an example of …brand streching……….

2. Consumers who always buy Levi’s when they need a new pair of jeans are showing …..Brand awareness…

3. not enough people recognize our logo; we need to spent a lot more on raising …Brand Image…


PRODUCT

1. David Beckham advertising Vodafone is an example of …product endorsement……

2. A …Product launch… consists of introduction, growth , maturity and decline.

3. the use of BMW cars and Nokia phones in James Bond films are examples of …product placement…


C. Make sentences of your own using the word partnerships in Exercise A.

Reading

Outsourcing Production

A. Why do some companies make luxury products abroad rather than at home?

Because they trust about the quality for the products

B. Read the article and answer these questions.

1. Which brands are mentioned? Do you know which country each is from?

Burberry (Italy), Coach (US), Prada (Italy), Gucci (Italy)

2. Which companies make all of their products in their own country?

Prada makes all off their products in their own country


Made in Europe

By Jo Johnson, Fred Kapner and Richard McGregor

Almost every fashion label outside the top super-luxury brands is either already manufacturing in Asia or thinking of it. Coach, the US leather goods maker, is a classis example. Over the past five years, it has lifted all its gross margins by manufacturing solely in low-cost markets. In March 2002 it closed its factory in Lares, Puerto Rico, its last company-owned plant, and outsources all its products.

Burberry has many Asian licensing arrangements. In 2000 it decided to renew Sanyo’s Japanese licence for 20 ten years. This means that almost half of Burberry’s sales at retail value will continue to be produced under licence in Asia. At the same time however, Japanese consumers prefer the group’s European-made products.

Sanyo is now creating to this demand for a snob alternative to the Burberry products made in its factories across Asia by opening a flagship store in Tokyo’s Ginza, where it sells Burberry products imported from Europe.

In interviews with the FT, many executives says the top luxury brands will continue to be seen, particularly in Asia, as European. Domenico De Sole of Gucci says “ The Asian Consumer really dos believe – whether it’s true or not – that luxury comes from Europe and must be made there to be the best.’

Serge Weinberg, Chief Executive of Pinault Printemps Redoute, which controls Gucci, says it will not move Gucci’s production of shore. Yet some in the industry recognize that change may be round the corner even for the superluxury brands. Patrizio Bertelli, Chief Executive of Prada, says:’ The “Made in Italy” label is important but what we are really offering is a style, and style is an expression of culture.’ He therefore recognizes that quality fashion items may not always need to be produced in italy.

Amitava Chattopadhyay, professor of marketing at Insead, the business school, says:’ A brand is a set of associations in the mind of the consumer and one of these is the country of origin. . For luxury goods, the role of the brand is crucial. To damage it is a cardinal sin and no brand manager will want to get the balance between manufacturing location and the brand image wrong’.

From the Financial Times

FINANCIAL TIMES

World Business Newspaper

C Which of these statements are true? Correct the false ones.

1. Coach has no longer factory in Puerto Rico. F(False)

2. Coach, like many other companies, is outsourcing its product to reduce costs. T (True)

3. Some Japanese people choose to buy Burberry products made in Europe rather than in Japan.T (True)

4. Sanyo’s store in Tokyo sells Burberry’s product made in Asia. T (True)

5. According to Domenico De Solle, the best luxury products are made in Japan. F (False)

6. Gucci is planning to outsource some of its products. F (False)

7. Partizio Bertelli believes that luxury fashion products should always be made in Europe F (False)

8. Amitava chattopadhyay says that companies need to pay careful attention to where they manufacture their   products. F(False)


C. Choose the best summary of the article.

a. Most manufacturers of luxury brands do not wish to produce their goods in low-cost countries because their believe  that it will damage their brand image.

b. Most manufacturers of top brands now produce their goods in low cost countries. Consumers no longer care about where the products are manufactured.

c. Asian consumers think that European luxury goods are of high quality. The current trend of making such goods in Asia could damage the reputation of these luxury brands.


Language Review

Present simple and present continuous.

The Present simple and Present continuous have several uses.

• We use the present simple to give factual information, for example about company activities.

Coach outsources all its products.

Does Burberry outsource its products?

• We use the present simple to talk about routine activities or habits.

I always buy Armani suits. Do you usually buy designer brands?

• We use the present continuous to talk about ongoing situations and projects.

Sanyo is now reacting to this demand.

• We use present contiuous to talk about temporary situations.

We are testing a new brand at the moment.

A. Which of the time expressions below do we usually use with the present simple?

Always, as a rule, generally, normally, usually, often, never, regularly, sometimes, seldom, nowadays, when, frequently, every day, now and then, etc

Which of the time expressions do we usually use with the present continuous?

Now, today, right now, at present, tonight, tomorrow, this afternoon, soon, in a few days, this morning, etc

Which are used with both?

Usually

this year

every day

now

Often

nowadays

once a month

Currently

at the moment

these days

B. Complete these sentences with the present simple or the present continuous forms of the verbs in brackets.

a. This year we ………trying….. (try) to develop a brand with personality.

b. We usually ……develop……… (develop) brands that say something.

a. Powerful brand names ………create……… (create) strong costumer loyalty.

b. At the moment we ……looking………… (look) for a new brand name that suggests something about the product’s        benefits and qualities.

a. L’Oreal …sells………… (sell) cosmetics and toiletries to customers around the world.

b. This year L’Oreal ………investing………(invest) over 180£m in R & D.

a. The marketing department always ………keep……….. (keep) within its budget.

b. Because the company made a loss last year, the marketing department ……try……..(try) to reduce costs.

C. Complete the text below with the present simple or present continuous forms of the verbs in brackets.

At the moment I …working…………… (work) for a cosmetics company. We offer a full range of cosmetic products and ……selling………….. (sell) cosmetics and toiletries around the world. Our main cosmetics brand ……dominate…….. (dominate) the French market and it ……doing……… (do) well in the rest of Europe at the moment, too. In fact, the brand………become……. (become) more and more popular throughout the world and our market share ………grow…… (grow) everyday.

We usually ………develop…………… (develop) and ……extend………. (extend) productsunder our existing brand name. The brand is distinctive and …………stands……..(stand) out from the competition. However, this year we ………creating……. (create) a completely new brand of cosmetics.

Discussion

Two Promotions

A.Work in pairs. Student A reads case 1 and answers the questions. Student B read Case 2 and answer the questions.

Case 1 : Harley Davidson.

In 2003 the Harley Davidson brand was 100 years old. Although its brand image is based on the spirit of wild and rebellious youth such as Marlon Brando in the film The Wild One (1954), the typical consumer is very different. They are likely to be rich, middle-aged accountants trying to recapture their youth. The average age of Harley Davidson customers is 46 compared with 36 for the rest of the motorbike industry. At the party to celebrate the centenary, the surprise performance was actually Elton John, rather than the Rolling Stones who many people had expected. This caused many of the 150,000 riders and dealers to leave the event very unhappy. Although sales and earnings for Harley Davidson have been increasing for the past 18 years, many people see the trouble on the road ahead. The problem is Harley Davidson’s typical customers from the baby –boom generation (1946 – 1964) and, as these customers get older, Harley Davidson may find its market shrinking.

1. What is the brand image of Harley Davidson?

The brand image of Harley Davidson is The spirit of wild and rebellious youth

2. Why were many people unhappy about the music at the party?

Because many people had expected Rolling stones to performance but the real for the surprise performance was actually Elton John.

3. What problem could have Harley Davidson have in the future?

The problem is market shrinking because Harley Davidson’s typical customers from the baby –boom generation (1946-1964) and as these customers get older

4. What can Harley Davidson do to preserve it sales? Should it change its brand image? Should it look for a new market segments? Should it stretch its brand?

Harley Davidson should look for a new market segments.


Case 2 : JCB

JCB is a world-famous engineering company. It was founded in 1945 by Joseph Cyril Bamford. He began his business working alone in a small garage. JCB makes construction and agricultural equipment such as tractors, earth-moving vehicles, and loading machines. Now its world headquarters in England is one of the finest engineering factories in Europe. The company produces over 130 different models on four different continents and sells a full range of equipment in over 150 countries. It is truly a global brand.

JCB’s research showed that its customers associated with the company with the following brand values :’yellow,’digger’, and ‘durable’. Adult saw the brand and being functional. Children, on the other hand, saw the brand as ‘big’, ‘muddy’ and ‘fun’. JCB made a decision to stretch its brand.

1. Where does the name JCB come from?

Its come from by Joseph Cyril Bamford

2. What was surprising about JCB’s customer research?

Its customers associated with the company with the following brand values : “yellow’, ‘digger’ and ‘durable’.

3. What sort of products do you think JCB developed as a result of its research?

JCB makes construction and agricultural equipment such as tractors, earth-moving vehicles and loading machines.

4. Can you think of a similar example of brand-stretching in your country?

Useful Language

Asking for opinions

How do you feel about…..?

What do you think?

What’s your opinion?

What’s your view?

Agreeing

That’s true

I agree

Absolutely / exactly

I think so too

Making suggestions

I think we should….

How about… ?

Why don’t we … ?

Perhaps we could….

Giving opinions

I think……./ I don’t think ………

In my opinion…….

Maybe, but…

Disagreeing

I see / know what you mean, but….

I’m afraid I can’t agree


UNIT 2

TRAVEL

A. Answer these questions individually. Then compare your answers with a partner.

1. How often do you travel by air, road and sea?

I often travel by the road.

2. What do you enjoy about traveling? What don’t you enjoy?

I enjoy my traveling because I will know a lot of new place, so I have new experience from my traveling. I don’t enjoy my traveling because I had a worst experience from some place I trip before

3. Put the following in order of importance to you when you travel?

Comfort

safety

price

reliability

speed


a. Safety

b. Comfort

c. Reability

d. Price

e. Speed


4. Does the order change for different types of travel?

Yes. It does


B. Choose the correct word from the box to complete the following list of things which irritate people when flying.

Seats

trolleys

queues

luggage

Room

cancellations

food

jet

1. Not enough leg …trolleys……..

2. lost or delayed …seats …..

3. long ..queus….. at check in

4. poor quality …food………… and drink

5. no baggage …room……….. available.

6. overbooking of …luggage…

7. flight delays and ……cancellations……

8. ………jet……..-lag

Vocabulary

British and American English

A. Match the words and phrases below which have the same meaning. For each pair decide which is British English and which is American English.

a. motorway

b. lift

c. public toilet

d. Schedule

e. Economy Class

f. Single

g. Parking Lot

h. Underground

i. Hand Luggage

j. Round Trip

k. Down Town

answer :

1. Subway H

2. city centre K

3. carry-on baggage I

4. one way F

5. return J

6. Freeway A

7. rest room B

8. elevator C

9. coach class E

10. timetable D

11. car park G

B.Work in pairs. Use words or phrases in American English from exercise A to complete the text below.

My last overseas business trip was a nightmare from start to finish. First of all there was a delay on the way to the airport as there was an accident on the motorway. When I got there I found the lower level of the airport public toilet was flooded. Next my hand luggage was closed and there were no cabs at all. After long time trying to read the schedule and waiting for forty minutes, we finally got a bus economy class and found the hotel, but the rest room wasn’t working and our rooms were on the fifth floor.

Reading

Air Rage

A. Answer these questions before you read the article.

1. What was your worst experience when traveling by air?

There’s nothing worst experience when I’m traveling by air.

2. Why do some people get angry when they are traveling on a plane?

Often was a delay, a cancellations, and service from the flight company not satisfy


Road ragers in the sky

By Derek Brown

Airlines and their long-suffering customers are reporting a steep climb in air rage incidents. Some incidents are apparently caused by problems which are familiar to many regular travellers. One case reported from America stemmed from an interminable delay in takeoff, when passangers were cooped up in their aircraft on the tarmac or our hours, without food, drink or information. Mass unrest is less common the individual misbehaviour, as in the case of the convict who recently went crazy on a flight, attacked the crew and tried to open the door in mind flight.

The psychology of air rage is a new are o study, and there are almost as many explanations as examples. Most analysis of the phenomenon blame alcohol, but many people now think that the airlines are at fault. To cut costs, they are cramming ever more passangers into their aircraft, while reducing cabin crew, training, and quality of service, all o which increase passenger frustration. In addition, there are increasing concern in the US about another cost-cutting exercise, which could seriously harm passengers’ health: cabin ventilation.

I. Modern aircraft are equipped with sophisticated air conditioning devices – but running them at.optimum capacity burns up valuable aviation fuel. Many airlines routinely instruct their flight crews to run the systems on minimum settings. Champaignes for improved air quality claim that this can lead to irritability and disorientation.

In the US, the soaring number of passenger complaints across a wide range of issues is reflected in a number of new internet sites which criticize the airline and demand better service. One of the sites is demanding an air passengers’ Bill of Rights.

Cabin and flight crews, who are in the front line of the battle against disruptive and dangerous in-flight behaviour, have called for stiffer penalties against the offenders. Management have also called or legislation – while denying that its cost-cutting practices have contributed to the problem. But there are some signs, in the US at least, that the airlines are at last attempting to respond to customer dissatisfaction. Some major lines have announced concessions to the most frequent complaint for all, and are removing seats to make more room for their customers.

Exercise:

A.COMPLETE EACH DIALOGUE WITH THE CORRECT FROM OF GOING TO

OR WILL

A.I’m really sorry,I can’t take you to the station .Something has just come up

B.Oh,don’t worry,I’M GOING TO..(take) a taxi

A.We’ve chosen a name four new low-cost airline

B.Really,What….WILL YOU CALL…..(you/call) it?

A.Have you decided how to increase the number of passengers?

B.Yes,we..GOING TO OFFER…..(offer) a family discount at weekends.

A.I can’t send an e-mail to the travel agent;my computer’s just crashe

B.Write down your details and I…WILL FAX……(fax) them over for you.

A.How’s your daughter?

B.She’s fine.She……..GOING TO LEARN….(learn) to be a pilot for the flying doctor service next Year!

B.USE THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS OR THE PRESENT SIMPLE TO COMPLETE

THE SENTENCES BELOW

1.His flight arrives / is arriving at 9 o’clock tomorrow morning.

2.We’re staying / stay at the Hilton Hotel for next month’s sales conference.

3.The next seminar is beginning / begins at 3 p.m

4.I travel / am travelling by train from Paris to London next time.

5.The boat is departing / departs at midday so you have the whole morning to get ready.

6.The delegation from China are seeing / see the Chairman the following Monday

C.WORK IN PAIRS.TAKE TURNS TO COMPLETE THE SENTENCES BELOW.USE

GOING TO,WILL,THE PRESENT CONTINUOUS OR THE PRESENT SIMPLE.

1.I’m sorry,I can’t attend the sales meeting tomorrow………………

2.The marketing department have decided on their travel plans for the next month…….

3The trains are delayed because of bad weather,so…………….

4.Don’t worry if you can’t drive me to airport,………………..

5.I’ve got the details of your flight to Turkey……………….

6.Oh,no!There’s been an accident and the traffic is very

TASK FROM MR. MUHAMAD KHOLIQ

I.

1. What do you know about Business Letter!

2. Please describe and elaborate

a) Style of Business Letter

b) Parts of Business Letter

3. What is the difference between Full Block Style, Block Style, Semi-Block Style?

“Answer”

1. A business letter is a letter written in formal language, usually used when writing from one business organization to another, or for correspondence between such organizations and their customers, clients and other external parties. The overall style of letter will depend on the relationship between the parties concerned.

2a) Style of Business Letter

– Full Block Style

– Block Style

– Semi Block Style

2b) Parts of Business Letter

Business letters (in the United States) usually contain the following elements, in order:

a) Return Address: If your stationery has a letterhead, skip this. Otherwise, type your name, address and optionally, phone number. These days, it’s common to also include an email address.

b) Date: Type the date of your letter two to six lines below the letterhead. Three are standard. If there is no letterhead, type it where shown.

c) Reference Line: If the recipient specifically requests information, such as a job reference or invoice number, type it on one or two lines, immediately below the Date (2). If you’re replying to a letter, refer to it here. For example,

• Re: Job # 625-01

• Re: Your letter dated 1/1/200x.

d) Special Mailing Notations: Type in all uppercase characters, if appropriate.

Examples include

• SPECIAL DELIVERY

• CERTIFIED MAIL

• AIRMAIL

e) On-Arrival Notations: Type in all uppercase characters, if appropriate. You might want to include a notation on private correspondence, such as a resignation letter. Include the same on the envelope. Examples are

• PERSONAL

• CONFIDENTIAL

f) Inside Address: Type the name and address of the person and/or company to whom you’re sending the letter, three to eight lines below the last component you typed. Four lines are standard. If you type an Attention Line (7), skip the person’s name here. Do the same on the envelope.

g) Attention Line: Type the name of the person to whom you’re sending the letter. If you type the person’s name in the Inside Address (6), skip this. Do the same on the envelope.

h) Salutation: Type the recipient’s name here. Type Mr. or Ms. [Last Name] to show respect, but don’t guess spelling or gender. Some common salutations are

• Ladies:

• Gentlemen:

• Dear Sir:

• Dear Sir or Madam:

• Dear [Full Name]:

• To Whom it May Concern:

i) Subject Line: Type the gist of your letter in all uppercase characters, either flush left or centered. Be concise on one line. If you type a Reference Line (3), consider if you really need this line. While it’s not really necessary for most employment-related letters, examples are below.

• SUBJECT: RESIGNATION

• LETTER OF REFERENCE

• JOB INQUIRY

j) Body: Type two spaces between sentences. Keep it brief and to the point.

k) Complimentary Close: What you type here depends on the tone and degree of

formality. For example,

• Respectfully yours (very formal)

• Sincerely (typical, less formal)

• Very truly yours (polite, neutral)

• Cordially yours (friendly, informal)

l) Signature Block: Leave four blank lines after the Complimentary Close (11) to sign your name. Sign your name exactly as you type it below your signature. Title is optional depending on relevancy and degree of formality. Examples are

• John Doe, Manager

• P. Smith

Director, Technical Support

• R. T. Jones – Sr. Field Engineer

m) Identification Initials: If someone typed the letter for you, he or she would typically include three of your initials in all uppercase characters, then two of his or hers in all lowercase characters. If you typed your own letter, just skip it since

your name is already in the Signature Block (12). Common styles are below.

• JAD/cm

• JAD:cm

• Clm

n) Enclosure Notation: This line tells the reader to look in the envelope for more. Type the singular for only one enclosure, plural for more. If you don’t enclose anything, skip it. Common styles are below.

• Enclosure

• Enclosures: 3

• Enclosures (3)

o) cc: Stands for courtesy copies (formerly carbon copies). List the names of people to whom you distribute copies, in alphabetical order. If addresses would be useful to the recipient of the letter, include them. If you don’t copy your letter to anyone, skip it.

3.

c) The difference between full-block style, block style and semi block style

a) In full-block format, nothing is indented.

b) In block format sender’s address, date, are indented. and paragraphs are not indented.

c) In semi-block format, the sender’s address, date and closing salutation are indented.

d) In semi-block format, it is also permissible to indent the paragraphs, but it is not necessary to do so.

II.

1. What do you know about

a) Subject Verb Agreement

Subject-verb agreement is a grammatical rule that states that the verb must agree in number with its subject. In English, present tense verbs change to show agreement in the third person singular form (subjects represented by the pronouns HE, SHE, IT) by adding an S or ES

===========Choose the right answer from the sentences below===========

1. John along with twenty friends (is / are) planning a party

2. The picture of the soldiers (bring / brings) back many memories

3. The quality of these recording (is / are) not very good

4. If the duties of this officers (isn’t / aren’t) reduced, there will not be enough time to finish the project

5. The effect of cigarette smoking (have / has) been proven to be extremely harmful

6. The use of credit card in place of cash (have / has) increased rapidly in recent years

7. Advertisement on television (is / are) becoming more competitive than ever before

8. Living experiences in this country, as well as in many others (is /are) at an all time high

9. Mr. Jones accompanied by several member of the committee (have / has) proposed some changes of the rules

10.The levels of intoxication (very / varies) from subject to subject

==Answer==

1. John along with twenty friends (is / are) planning a party

2. The picture of the soldiers (bring / brings) back many memories

3. The quality of these recording (is / are) not very good

4. If the duties of this officers (isn’t / aren’t) reduced, there will not be enough time to finish the project

5. The effect of cigarette smoking (have / has) been proven to be extremely harmful

6. The use of credit card in place of cash (have / has) increased rapidly in recent years

7. Advertisement on television (is / are) becoming more competitive than ever before

8. Living experiences in this country, as well as in many others (is /are) at an all time high

9. Mr. Jones accompanied by several member of the committee (have / has) proposed some changes of the rules

10. The levels of intoxication (very / varies) from subject to subject


b) Verbs as Complement

A verb complement is a direct or indirect object of a verb. A Verb complement (notice the spelling of the word) is any word or phrase that completes the sense of subject, an object, or a verb. As you will see, the terminology describing predicates and complements can overlap and be a bit confusing.

===========Choose the right answer from the sentences below===========

1. The teacher decided (accepting / to accept) the paper

2. They appreciate (to have / having) this information

3. His father doesn’t approve of his (going / to go) to Europe

4. We found it very difficult (teaching / to reach) a decision

5. Dona is interested in (opening / to open) a bar

6. George has no intention of (to leave / leaving) the city now

7. We are eager (return / returning) to school in the fal

8. You would be better off (to buy / buying) this car

9. She refused (to receive / receiving) the gift

10. Mery regrets (to be / being) this one to have to tell him

==Answer==

1 . The teacher decided (accepting / to accept) the paper

2. They appreciate (to have / having) this information

3. His father doesn’t approve of his (going / to go) to Europe

4. We found it very difficult (reaching / to reach) a decision

5. Dona is interested in (opening / to open) a bar

6. George has no intention of (to leave / leaving) the city now

7. We are eager (return / returning) to school in the fal

8. You would be better off (to buy / buying) this car

9. She refused (to receive / receiving) the gift

10. Mery regrets (to be / being) this one to have to tell him


Business English Article

NETWORK

A. Network

Network is a set computers connected by a cable so that a single computer with other computers can communicate to each other, exchanging information sharing files, printers,etc..

Network is divided into 2

  • Standalone
  • Network
  • B. Type – type of nNetwork Based Coverage
  • Local Area Networking (LAN)

Local Area Network (LAN) is the number of computers that are connected together in one particular area that is not so large, as in an office or building. Broadly speaking there are two types of network or LAN, a network of peer to peer and client-server network. In peer to peer network, every computer connected to the network can act both as a workstation or server and other computers acting as workstations. Between these two types of networks each have advantages and disadvantages, in which each will be explained.

  • Metropolitan Area Networking (MAN)

This more extensive network than the LAN network and reach across regions within a province. MAN networks connecting small networks that exist, such as the LAN environment that leads to a larger area. For example, some banks that have a computer network in each branch can be connected to each other so that customers can make transactions at the branch or in the same province

  • Wide Area Networking (WAN)

This network covers a large area and can reach even up to the provincial boundaries of existing earth else. WAN network to connect one computer to another computer by using satellite or submarine cables. Topology used WAN using irregular topologies in accordance with what will be used. Network Topology (Form Network) network topology is a physical description of the pattern of relationship between network components, including servers, worstations, hub / switch.

Image.1 General Network Topology

C. Network Topology

Network topology is the structure or from network

Type – type of network topology

  • Point to Point

This network is point to point network of the most simple but widely used. Once this network simple, that it is often not considered as a network but only a regukar communication. In this case, the second node has a level position, so that any node can initiate and control the relationship in the network. data send from one node other conclusion directly as recipients, for example between the terminals with the CPU

Image.2 Network Topology Point to Point (Point to Point)

  • Star Topology

In a star configuration, there is some equipment that will be linked into a central computer. Existing controls will be concentrated at one point, such as workload and adjust setting for existing resources. All links must be associated with the center if you want to distribute other data intended conclusion. In this case, when the center was down, then all the terminals will also be affected. Star network models is relatively simple, so widely used by the parties of the bank which usuallyu have many branch offices spread location. With this star configuration, then all sort of activities in the branch office it can be controlled and coordinated well. In addition, education also tend to use a star network is to control the activities of their student.

Image.3 Network Topology Star Network (Star Network)

  • Ring Networks

In this network there are several devices are connected to each other and will eventually form the chart as well as a ring. Ring network does not have a point that acts as a center or data traffic, all nodes have the same level. The data sent will go through several nodes that arrive at the destination node. In presenting the data, the network can move in one or two directions. Nevertheless, the data continues to move in one direction in one time. First, there is a message that will be delivered from other point in one direction. If found the failure, for example there is damage to the equipment available,existing data will be sent by way of second, then the message is transmitted in the opposite direction, and could eventually and up at destination. Such a configuration. This is because each node that will act as a computer that will handle any application at hand, and must be able to share resources on the existing network. In addition, this system is more suitable for systems that are not centralized (Decentralized-System) which is not required of a particular proriry.

Image.4 Ring Networks (Ring Network)

  • Tree Network

In the network, Three are several levels of nodes (node). Center or a higher node level. Another node can set a lower level. Data that is sent to the central node first. For example to move from computer to the node-node 3 to the computer-7 as well as in the figure, the data must pass through node 3, node-5, and 6 before ending at node 7. Network tree model like this in, can the formation of a group that needed at any time.For example, companies can form a group consisting of terminal accounts as well as on other groups formed for the sale terminals. The weakness is, if the node is higher then does not work, then another group who are below it eventually also became ineffective.

Image.5 Tree Network Topology Network (Network Tree)

  • Bus Network Configuration

Known as the bus-network, suitable for areas that are not too broad. Each computer (each node) will be connected with a communication cable through an interface. Each computer can communicate directly with computers or other equipment located in the network, in other words, all nodes have equal status. In this case, the network is not dependent on the existing computer center, so that if one device or one node is destroyed, the system can still iperate. Each node has an existing address or nature it self. so that access to the data from one node, the user or simply mentioning the address of the node in question.

Image.6 Bus Network Topology Network Configuration

  • Plex Network (Network Combination)

Network is truly interactive, in which each node has the ability to directly access not only to computers, but also with equipment or other nodes. In general this network has a form similar to a star network. Organization of existing data using de centralization, is to perform maintenance, use the centralized.

Image.7 Plex Network Topology Network (Network Combination)

CONDITIONAL SENTENSE

(Sentense assumption)

Conditional sentense is the sentence which presupposes assumption a desire, hopes, plans and others that :

Can still happen (possible)

Unmet / fantasy (unreal / probable ) and

Did not materialize (imposible)

Form :

There are three conditonal sentense namely :

  • Type I : Future conditionals that express a desire, hope, or plan that still CAN HAPPEN / when we are thinking about possibilities.

FORMULA

IF + S + V1, S +will + V1

Example :

If  I pass the exam I will continue to university

Fact :

Maybe I pass the exam, if I study hard.

  • Type II : Present conditional, stating a desire, hope or unfulfilled plans / fantasies (unreal) or when we imagine a situation

FORMULA

IF + S + V2, S + would + V1

Example :

If I passed them exam, I would continue to university

Fact :

I do not pass the exam now

I do not pass then exam right now so I do not go to university

Note :

In type II “were”  is used for all subject

Example :

If  I were you, I would continue to university (but I am not you)

Type II, Contrary to the facts now

  • Type III : Past conditional which states a desire, hope or plan that does not happen (imposible) or when we imagine a situation based on the facts in the past.

FORMULA

IF + S + had + V3, S + would have + V3

If  I had passed the exam, I would have continued to university

Facts :

I did not pass the exam then

(I did not pass the time, so I did not go to university)

Note :

For type III is often shaped inversion (reversal of position).

2 subject verb and not use the IF

Example :

Had I passed the exam, I would have continued touniversity

PATTERN :

Type I

If + S + V1, S + will + V1

Type II

If + S + V2, S + would + V1

Type III

If + S + had + V3, S + would have + V3

NETWORK

A. Network

Network is a set computers connected by a cable so that a single computer with other computers can communicate to each other, exchanging information sharing files, printers,etc..

Network is divided into 2

  • Standalone
  • Network

B. Type – type of nNetwork Based Coverage

  • Local Area Networking (LAN)

Local Area Network (LAN) is the number of computers that are connected together in one particular area that is not so large, as in an office or building. Broadly speaking there are two types of network or LAN, a network of peer to peer and client-server network. In peer to peer network, every computer connected to the network can act both as a workstation or server and other computers acting as workstations. Between these two types of networks each have advantages and disadvantages, in which each will be explained.

  • Metropolitan Area Networking (MAN)

This more extensive network than the LAN network and reach across regions within a province. MAN networks connecting small networks that exist, such as the LAN environment that leads to a larger area. For example, some banks that have a computer network in each branch can be connected to each other so that customers can make transactions at the branch or in the same province

  • Wide Area Networking (WAN)

This network covers a large area and can reach even up to the provincial boundaries of existing earth else. WAN network to connect one computer to another computer by using satellite or submarine cables. Topology used WAN using irregular topologies in accordance with what will be used. Network Topology (Form Network) network topology is a physical description of the pattern of relationship between network components, including servers, worstations, hub / switch.

Image.1 General Network Technology

C. Network Topology

Network topology is the structure or from network

Type – type of network topology

  • Point to Point

This network is point to point network of the most simple but widely used. Once this network simple, that it is often not considered as a network but only a regukar communication. In this case, the second node has a level position, so that any node can initiate and control the relationship in the network. data send from one node other conclusion directly as recipients, for example between the terminals with the CPU

Image.2 Network Topology Point to Point

  • Star Topology

In a star configuration, there is some equipment that will be linked into a central computer. Existing controls will be concentrated at one point, such as workload and adjust setting for existing resources. All links must be associated with the center if you want to distribute other data intended conclusion. In this case, when the center was down, then all the terminals will also be affected. Star network models is relatively simple, so widely used by the parties of the bank which usuallyu have many branch offices spread location. With this star configuration, then all sort of activities in the branch office it can be controlled and coordinated well. In addition, education also tend to use a star network is to control the activities of their student.

Image.3 Network Topology Star Network

  • Ring Networks

In this network there are several devices are connected to each other and will eventually form the chart as well as a ring. Ring network does not have a point that acts as a center or data traffic, all nodes have the same level. The data sent will go through several nodes that arrive at the destination node. In presenting the data, the network can move in one or two directions. Nevertheless, the data continues to move in one direction in one time. First, there is a message that will be delivered from other point in one direction. If found the failure, for example there is damage to the equipment available,existing data will be sent by way of second, then the message is transmitted in the opposite direction, and could eventually and up at destination. Such a configuration. This is because each node that will act as a computer that will handle any application at hand, and must be able to share resources on the existing network. In addition, this system is more suitable for systems that are not centralized (Decentralized-System) which is not required of a particular proriry.

Image.4 Ring Network

  • Tree Network

In the network, Three are several levels of nodes (node). Center or a higher node level. Another node can set a lower level. Data that is sent to the central node first. For example to move from computer to the node-node 3 to the computer-7 as well as in the figure, the data must pass through node 3, node-5, and 6 before ending at node 7. Network tree model like this in, can the formation of a group that needed at any time.For example, companies can form a group consisting of terminal accounts as well as on other groups formed for the sale terminals. The weakness is, if the node is higher then does not work, then another group who are below it eventually also became ineffective.

Image.5 Tree Network

  • Bus Network Configuration

Known as the bus-network, suitable for areas that are not too broad. Each computer (each node) will be connected with a communication cable through an interface. Each computer can communicate directly with computers or other equipment located in the network, in other words, all nodes have equal status. In this case, the network is not dependent on the existing computer center, so that if one device or one node is destroyed, the system can still iperate. Each node has an existing address or nature it self. so that access to the data from one node, the user or simply mentioning the address of the node in question.

Image.6 Bus Network

  • Plex Network (Network Combination)

Network is truly interactive, in which each node has the ability to directly access not only to computers, but also with equipment or other nodes. In general this network has a form similar to a star network. Organization of existing data using de centralization, is to perform maintenance, use the centralized.

Image.6 Plex Network

2 responses

6 02 2013
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7 08 2013
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